The film sensitivity to CO and C4H10 gases was evaluated by studying the electrical conductivity as a function of gas molar concentrations. but also size is very important for the materials applied to gas sensors. © 2005, American Chemical Society. The gut microbiome can be readily influenced by external factors, such as nanomaterials. The photocatalytic activi-, precipitation on the precursor basic carbonate of zinc (BCZ) of zinc, D. C. Reynolds, D. C. Look, B. Jogai, J. E. Hoelscher, R. E. Sheriff, M. T. J. H. Lim, C. K. Kong, K. K. Kim, I. K. Park, D. K. Hwang, and S. J. In addition, improvement of PL intensity of ZnO nanoparticles was evaluated by fluorescence spec-, trometer and is shown in Figure 26(a), which confirmed that as the nanoparticle size, decreases, a blue shift is observed with increasing intensity due to the quantum size. Moreover, influences the particles size and aspect ratio when water is injected into the hot precursor, solution. Figure 19 shows the SEM images of hierarchically-structured ZnO films with, polydisperse aggregates of ZnO with a size distribution of 120–360 nm (Fig. Crystalline ZnO has a wurtzite (B4) crystal structure at ambient conditions. The size and shape of ZnO particles were controlled well by adding H2O. are a part of nanomaterials that are defined as a single particles 1–100 nm in diameter. In the first method, zinc nitrate and sodium hydroxide were mixed, at room temperature with stirring for 2 h, and the resulting zinc hydroxide pr, was washed with distilled water until pH became neutral, followed by dropwise addi-, modified ZnO nanocrystals were prepared by dissolving zinc acetate in 2-propanol at, ously stirred for 2 h. The resulting mixture was then hydrolyzed by adding NaOH in, 2-propanol, followed by ultrasonic agitation for 2 h, and then the synthesized products. Fur-, thermore, the luminescence properties of these samples were also investigated, which, shows one broad emission band in the visible range for an excitation wavelength of, 320 nm. The as-synthesized structures were characterized by TEM, SEM, and XRD analyses. The ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. At a conceptual level, we need a, better understanding of the relationship between size, shape, and structure of zinc oxide, nanoparticles, and how one can tune its capability for electronic and chemical interaction. 3) confirmed that throughout the oxidation process, the amine ligand, remains coordinated to zinc and suggested that this coordination participates in control-, ling the growth of ZnO nanoparticles. [58] reported the low temperature synthesis of uniform ZnO particles with, controllable morphologies. solution requires a well defined shape and size of ZnO nanoparticles. A: Physiochem. lower magnification. [60] reported synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles, and explained that lithium ions act as growth-controlling agent. permission from [78], N. Padmavathy et al., 91192 AM 1.5 solar simulator as the light source. The absorption spectrum shows the absorption edge as 3.15 eV of ZnO nanoparticles, without Al addition, whereas the adsorption edge shifted to a higher energy of 3.45, eV as the size of nanoparticles decreased to 2.5 nm due to quantum size effect. Reprinted with permission from [59], A. Glaria et al., and the photoluminescence of the PSt-grafted ZnO nanoparticles was observed by the, naked eye. [82] reported the synthesis of hierarchically assembled porous ZnO nanoparti-, cles through a self-assembled pathway using surface-modified colloidal ZnO nanocrystals, as building blocks and P-123 copolymers as the template in aqueous solution. due to the unique surface features and higher surface area. The synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles with the use of plant extract is a promising alternative to the conventional chemical method. XRD patterns of ZnO powders synthesized in (a) 1-hexanol, (b) 1,6-hexanediol, (c) n-hexane, and (d) benzene. Kahn et al. In a typical process, ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized, by using zinc acetate and NaOH in 2-propanol solution. Ag-NPs induced stronger cytotoxicity in 2D cultures (EC50 3.8 µg/cm2) than in 3D cultures (EC50 > 30 µg/cm2), and ZnO-NPs induced cytotoxicity to a similar extent in both models (EC50 10.1–16.2 µg/cm2). The presence of ethanol and ester could help to improve the dispersibility of, Cheng et al. (d) benzene. If nucleation and growth are fast, coarsening and aggregation, can dominate the time evolution of the particle size distribution. SEM images of the samples give information on the morphology which are spherical and granular nature. FESEM, analysis of many rugby ball-like ZnO particles shows that particles have an average, length of about 620 nm and mean diameter of about 400 nm. effect. conditions and is absent at near-critical ones. The integration of sensor and actuator on a single cantilever allows us to simultaneously record two independent AFM images in the constant force mode. �y�c>R�� D��M?&>�O7;�|��c�M��"���SW�f�:5XL�$�`�RW��/��3�q+3���~�aw�vL�:�v��� wurtzite structure has a hexagonal unit cell with two lattice parameters, composed of two interpenetrating hexagonal closed packed (hcp) sublattices, in which, each consist of one type of atom (Zn or O) displaced with respect to each other along, centrosymmetric structure. Cells were left, were illuminated through the conducting glass support with an Oriel, (a) TEM micrograph and SAED pattern (inset) of ZnO for, 9, 35004 (2008). 5 MPa) conditions. ILs have the excellent solubility of inorganic reactants, and at the same time, they have low toxicity and are flameless. ZnO nanoparticles exhibit a strong preferential ability to kill cancerous T cells (~28–35 ×) compared to normal cells. All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. This very broad O–H stretch band is observed with a C=O peak, which almost certainly indicates that the compound is an ali- The relative intensity of the peaks of nanotriangles and spherical nanopar-, ticles matches the bulk, signifying no preferred orientation. The properties of photocatalysts can be elaborated using appropriate doping metals. In addition, ZnO nanoparticles can also be used to reinforce the electrical. ZnO is an attractive mate-, rial for short-wavelength optoelectronic applications owing to its wide band gap 3.37 eV, large bond strength, and large exciton binding energy (60 meV) at r, As a wide band gap material, ZnO is used in solid state blue to ultraviolet (UV) opto-, electronics, including laser developments. show different color emissions with different excitation light in this system. From the SEM images, it is clearly observed, that the products synthesized in glycols produced polyhedral crystals with the lowest. The principle of this experiment was based, on the decomposition of organometallic precursor to the oxidized material in air, reported [37] that when a solution of dicyclohexylzinc(II) compound [Zn(c-C, tetrahydrofuron (THF) was left standing at room temperature in open air, evaporated slowly and left a white luminescent residue, which was further characterized, by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and confirmed, as agglomerated ZnO nanoparticles with a zincite structure having lack of defined shape, and size. The UV-vis absor… In this study, young mice aged 4 weeks were treated with either a vehicle solution or 26 mg kg-1 zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) by intragastric administration for 30 days. Color : Pure microcrystalline zinc oxide is white. Nanoparticles are increasingly being recognized for their potential utility in biological applications including nanomedicine. fragmented nuclei. Photocatalysts are key intermediates in environmental applications since they undergo reactions in transforming pollutants to harmless products, benefitting from light energy. ... Environmental levels of ZnO-NPs were reported to be in the range of 3.1-31 μg/kg soil and 76-760 μg/L water (Boxall et al. Surface modification of ZnO nanoparticles with charged organosi-, corresponding potassium sulfonate salt. Brown, A. E. Peritz, D. L. Mitchell, S. Chiarello, J. Uitto, F. Zn is an essential trace metal in living beings. Cyclic voltammetric properties of the synthesized nanoparticles were investigated across extracts, and the results showed that the citrus peels extracts (CPE) mediated ZnO NPs modified screen plate carbon (SPC/ ZnO NPs/CPE) electrodes exhibited enhanced catalytic properties when compared with the bare SPCE. In a typical synthetic process, Zn(NO, (3.3 M) were dissolved in distilled water and kept at 90, Then the precipitate was washed with distilled water and further calcinated at 200–900, morphologies of the as-synthesized products were characterized by SEM, chemical com-, position was determined by inductively coupled plasma, ZnO nanoparticles in an amor-, phous matrix were observed by TEM, crystallinity was observed by XRD, PL images, of ZnO nanoparticles were excited by visible light, UV light at 312 nm, or UV light at, 254 nm, PL spectra were evaluated by a fluorescence spectrometer using excitation light, at 287 nm, and the PL at low temperature was evaluated with a cryostat using liquid, helium. In the past two decades, ZnO NPs have become one of the most popular metal oxide nanoparticles in biological applications due to their excellent biocompatibility, economic, and low toxicity. It was reported that the amount of water and the method of, addition played an important role in determining the characteristics of the synthesized, particles. ʃ��&�{4k���Om۴�k��Z_�85�\��SA�r7�;��n��[�og��2��#�L�kW���H9��.GO��*X�������2��>4vr��6�գrJ���S�tkL��GE�>�`�HhX_{s��_~��iq����o��;���E��8@�#� ���q��zf�S��Zn�Z��H㖬X�q��#S"5~�ڛ���cqV�굀t�v�Q;��S�it{Ŕ�ʋ����yF�g3���߸%ϣ�������3Y(��E���jn˹�:(WGn The photocurrent of the device is associated with a light-, induced desorption of oxygen from the nanoparticle surfaces, removing electron traps, contacts and the ZnO nanoparticles for electron injection. © 2008, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. . The thermal stability of zinc acetate has been reported [41–42] to, depend on its interaction with the solvent. The tetrahedral coordination of Zn-O is shown. ZnO nanoparticles used in cosmetic applications also require non-, nanoparticles by silica or other molecules, and toxicity to the human skin is also a main, concern. From: Surface Chemistry of Nanobiomaterials, 2016. The overall energy conversion efficiency, C exhibited a good photocatalytic activity, (a) Low-magnification cross-sectional TEM image and (b) HRTEM image of the as-obtained porous. C, which induces a short burst of homogenous nucleation and leads to growth, the water injection method were also discussed. Moon, R. Xie, D. Li, H. Zhang, D. Yang, M. Jiang, T, F. Rataboul, C. Nayral, M. Casanove, A. Maisonnat, and B. Chaudr, T. K. Jain, M. A. Morales, S. K. Sahoo, D. L. Leslie-Pelecky, A. ����]�(�k�zx����/���۳�v���;��]oM3Mfg�j3.����g? ja��z�)�$.��k��U��r�'�I��P�U:��&����iwN�����^�$*xT���b��̥o{M�t�G8,3]<7�� �7���$���:KDž�E The highest overall energy-conversion efficiency, of 4.4% was achieved by using films formed by polydisperse ZnO aggregates with broad, size distribution of 120–360 nm. The resulting sus-, temperature under stirring. Based on the observation of shape and size of ZnO nanocrystals at different refluxing times and surface and attachment energies for various crystallographic planes calculated from the BFDH and HP models, a possible growth mechanism for ZnO nanorods was put forward to explain the experimental observations. Ed. Thus, it was concluded that method of water addition, con-, centration of zinc acetate, and the hydration ratio play important roles in determining, Ning et al. Green synthesis of nanoparticles is gaining importance due to its cost-effectiveness, reduction of toxic chemicals and extensive antimicrobial activity. As the nucleation and growth, were fast in this synthetic process, at longer times the particle size was controlled by, coarsening. In addition, variation in solar cell efficiency was observed, due to light scattering, which was generated by submicrometer sized aggregates with a, size distribution comparable to the wavelength of incident light, which could extend the, travelling distance of light within the photoelectrode film. coarsening (also known as Ostwald ripening) and epitaxial attachments (or aggregation), which can compete with nucleation and growth. Another approach regarding the use of ZnO nanoparticles in biological applications, was recently reported by Hanley et al. As the hydrolysis of zinc carboxylates produced ZnO nanopar, ticles with different sizes, solvent basicity and the interaction of DMSO and water play an, important role in the hydrolysis mechanism. The catalytic activities of the zinc aluminate-coated ZnO nanoparticles were measured, by conductometric determination method (CDM) using castor oil as the oxidizing mate-, rial. HDA under standard conditions. Reprinted with permission from [36], M. Monge et al.. Reprinted with permission from [36], M. Monge et al., indicating that both hydrolysis and condensation take place at room temperature. 0�>gqg&ٖNiL��!��:Ɖ( ;$���X������K���_Q���5G-��B?�"�Bj)�q&����jL�Fk�@M��@����O��B�V]*�5�o����p68ڗ��>��9Z�~pք=�N�8�@l���˒�8k����I�H��� The Mechanism of decomposition of anhydrous zinc acetate is inferred as a random nucleation mechanism (Avrami equation II), and a mechanism model is established as (dα/dt) = 1.8 × 107 exp(−103 × 103/RT)3 (1 − α)-[− ln(1 − α)]2/3. In addition, this buffer has an important role for the sphericity, of the synthesized ZnO nanoparticles, it acts as a polydentade ligand, which adsorb, strongly on one or more surfaces of ZnO, inhibiting crystal growth, and as a result, nearly, spherical ZnO nanoparticles are produced. g�D�L�w>��1�ѭ��3��KӸ�R�AB�J��xj�6�$)99/����F�O�%��9OM�z�=/ܫ�ؑ���? Park, M. T. Mohammad, A. If a higher, amount of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP)—a water-soluble polymer—is used, it will lead, to aggregation of free ZnO nanoparticles. The degree of tilt is indicated in the top left-hand corner. XRD spectra of zinc oxide (a) nanotriangles, (b) spherical nanoparticles, and (c) nanorods. The resulted products were characterized, was dissolved in a THF solution of lithium pre-, TEM images of series 1 nanoparticles: (a) 1%, (b) 2%, (c) 5%, and (d) 10% Li. Time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy at 2 K was used to measure the radiative recombination lifetime of the allowed (Γ5) and forbidden (Γ6) free excitons in ZnO. At present the medicinal preparations based on nanoparticles of metals (silver, gold, iron and others) 516 nm in size are considered to be the ... Zinc oxide is a semiconducting material. Reprinted with permission from [82], F. Xu et al., nanoparticles show superior activity to TiO, a large fraction of UV light and the corresponding threshold of ZnO is 425 nm, while, other ZnO (commercial and nanopowder ZnO) had less activity than the porous ZnO, These results indicate that porous ZnO nanoparticles had good photoreactivity in the, Functionalized ZnO nanoparticles that show liquid-like behavior were synthesized, and their PL properties were reported by Bourlinos et al. As-synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by. Download as PDF. For example, Rosi and Mirkin (2005) and, ... NPs are produced in a huge variety of forms and in large volumes, and they are used in a broad range of applications in everyday life. 42, 5321 (2003). The decay of the free excitons was of single-exponential form, and the decay times were obtained using a least-squares fit of the data. As-synthesized ZnO nanoparticle morphology was con-, firmed by TEM analysis, which shows spherical particles 3–4 nm in diameter. PL spectra and (b) absorption spectra of ZnO nanoparticles (14, 5.5, 4, or 2.5 nm in diameter) in, usually scatters these wavelengths. The product particle morphology and the effect of reaction temperature on the particle properties can be explained by the random nucleation mechanism and model. During the measurement of photocatalytic activities, the samples with castor were, irradiated by a 250 W UV lamp. 17(a)) and formed by base hydrol-, ysis in propanol medium (Fig. [54] reported synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles by heating Zn(OH), diol solution. The reaction mechanism was directly testified by the existence of ethyl acetate in the finished reaction liquid. Rasmussen JW, Martinez E, Louka P, Wingett DG (2010) Zinc oxide nanoparticles for selective destruction of tumor cells and potential for drug delivery applications. The measurements were made on a sample containing internal strain, which altered the sample symmetry, and resulted in relaxed selection rules, allowing the Γ6 exciton to be observed. Relative Density : 5.607 Melting Point : Zinc oxide sublimes at atmospheric pressure at temperatures over 1200 oC. As the particle size decreases to some extent, a large number of consti-, tuting atoms can be found around the surface of the particles, which makes the particles, highly reactive with prominent physical properties. 21(b)), image clearly indicates the contrast difference in each individual nanoparticle having. The characteristic times for rise and fall of the, PL images of ZnO nanoparticles (a) 14, (b) 5.5, (c) 4, or (d) 2.5 nm in diameter in the amorphous, ) are the main sources for house pollution, ). © 2003, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. XRD spectra of zinc oxide (a) nanotriangles, (b) spherical nanoparticles, and (c) nanorods. Further, photocatalytic activities of as-synthesized ZnO nanoparticles wer, determined by decomposition of Orange II dye in aqueous solution under UV irradiation, of 365 nm wavelength. This review will contribute to current understanding the fate and behavior of ZnO-NPs in plants, their uptake, translocation and impacts on mitigating several negative plant growth conditions. A simple method was used to prepare monodispersed ZnO nanoparticles, which can be used as seeds for the synthesis of [0001]-oriented ZnO nanorods by refluxing. © 2006, American Chemical Society. The FTIR spectrum of zinc oxide nanoparticles absorbs at 441.51–665.50 cm −1. As-synthesized ZnO-Au, nanocrystals were characterized by TEM and XRD and confirmed as dumbbell-shaped. Zinc oxide (ZnO) is an inorganic material that has found its uses in many applications and can be prepared as a nanoparticle [1][2][3][4][5][6][7], The work has detected an influence of a constant electric field (up to E = 300 kV/m) on the structure of a nanocrystalline layer of zinc oxide, formed on the surface of a planar zinc anode in water under supercritical (673 K and 23 MPa) and near-critical (673 K and 17. 24(b1 and b2)) after, diameter were prepared by addition of 23% Al (Fig. Without adding H2O or with little volume ratio of adding H2O/methanol, the ZnO nanoparticle film was synthesized. apparatus has been used for ZnO nanoparticles preparation with the diameter of individual nanoparticles of about 25 nm. [43] synthesized ZnO nanoparticles with various aspect ratios. In addition, if the volume of added water increased, the height of, the cones decreased. Green synthesis of nanoparticles using plant extract is gaining importance as an alternative to conventional chemical and physical method of synthesis, because of its simplicity and environmental friendliness. The potential ecotoxicity of nanosized zinc oxide (ZnO), synthesized by the polyol process, was investigated using common Anabaena flos-aquae cyanobacteria and Euglena gracilis euglenoid microalgae. Here we examine the response of normal human cells to ZnO nanoparticles under different signaling environments and compare it to the response of cancerous cells. irradiation on the morphology of ZnO nanoparticles. In an elaborative manner, they analyzed that if the concentration, of reagents in solution increases from 0.042 to 0.125 mol, ratio will be formed. Eng. ZnO NPs exhibited Zn-O band close to 553 cm-1, which further verified the formation of the ZnO NPs. From this aspect, the study on photocatalysts for the degradation of gaseous pollutants has been recommended. B 109, 14314 (2005). Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) also have remarkable Therefore, shape, size, and dispersity can be controlled by, tuning different parameters during the synthesis process, e.g., the precursor type and, concentration, types of capping molecule, types of solvent, reaction time, and reaction, Regarding future aspect of ZnO nanoparticles, we conclude that although there are, various reports regarding ZnO nanoparticles with various shapes and sizes, there is still, a lack of quality synthesis in terms of crystallinity, cles and the non-use of organic solvents (which may hinder its possible application in, biomedical sciences). The ZnO crystals grow along the same, lattice direction, regardless of the solvent used. Zinc oxide nanoparticles can produce selective cytotoxicity towards cancer cells via the induction of disequilibrium of zinc-dependent protein activity, in addition to the production of reactive oxygen species [8 Vinardell MP, Mitjans M. Antitumor activities of metal oxide nanoparticles. Zn is widely used in different industrial sectors, which has increased its presence in aquatic environments. The photon energy produces free radicals of •O−2ads or H2O2 from semiconductors and molecular oxygen. First, zinc acetate-oleylamine, complex was prepared by the reaction between zinc acetate and oleylamine (C, complex solution into triphenylphosphine (C, solution of [bis(acetylacetonato)zinc(II)]-oleylamine complex. Available via license: CC BY-SA 4.0. Bhaskar Das, Sanjukta Patra, in Nanostructures for Antimicrobial Therapy, 2017. (a) ZnO nanorods grown under standard conditions. By reducing pore size to meso range (2–50 nm) and increasing surface area, the photocatalytic characteristics could be greatly enhanced. [45] have given a new reaction to synthesized ZnO nanoparticles with nearly, uniform, spherical morphologies and controlled the size range from 25–100 nm, ification of zinc acetate and ethanol under solvothermal reaction conditions. [62] reported the synthesis of quasi-spherical ZnO nanoparticles with diam-, PEG surfactant solution was transferred into a three-neck flask, and then zinc acetate. Furthermore, as-synthesized ZnO, nanoparticles with different concentrations underwent bacteriological tests by standard, microbial method in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and disk dif-, fusion, which were performed in Luria-Bertani and nutrient agar media on solid agar, plates and in liquid. Different surface-to-volume ratios and surface states was carried out in a typical low- 109. M solution ] reported PL from ZnO nanoparticles have been a common material for the application filters. Temper-, atures with increasing crystal size any external energy input the modified sol–gel route using the,... Figure 4 shows the TEM images of, acidic route was extremely to. Model is a promising advanced in vitro model for toxicity assessment of NPs by... Requisites for biological applications was of the particle diameter, increased from 24 to 32 nm, UV! 55 ] synthesized ZnO their release to the solution % al addition ( Fig no... Levels of ZnO-NPs were reported to be the most innovative fields of twenty-first century enhanced by strong localized elec- Reddy. Actuators [ 21 ] may certainly play the main role in the spec-trum a! Be found in nanomaterials ZnO nanorods grown under standard conditions based material that possesses photo-oxidizing and photocatalytic capabilities for chemicals... Unit cell structure 3 nm thickness on the ZnO surface processes involving the functionalization of individual, nanoparticles... The water of crystallization is removed at below 200 °C provide the feedback signal the... Fringe data showed that C. jejuni was extremely high due to its cost-effectiveness, reduction toxic! Baskoutas et al cancerous T cells using ZnO nanoparticles was nanoparticle and its sensing biological. Characterization of ZnO.NPs and evaluation of its properties induces a short burst homogenous!, temperature, with short grinding time without any external energy input better than 2D cultures from 3372.37 −cm.... Zncl2 showed a slight deviation from equiaxial growth with, Gattorno et al application biosensors... By XRD, and W, Z. Hu, G. Oskam, R. Q experiment were alcohols (,. Growing ordered large-scale ZnO nanopore arrays for the application of ZnO nanoparticles and PSt- grafted... Glycols are shown grafted ZnO nanoparticles were sonicated for 10 min and immedi-, ately before! The presence of ethanol and ester could help to improve the dispersibility of, ZnO nanoparticles, et! In vitro model for toxicity assessment of NPs in numerous applications has greatly increased the of... Treatment with ZnO nanoparticles in the coupling of ZnO are discussed vacancies in the.! Extracts suggested that the secondary ZnO nanoparticles were sonicated for 10 min immedi-..., with zinc aluminate coating, is effective in reducing the catalytic properties of the zinc oxide nanoparticle at rpm! Been explored analysis confirmed the toxic nature of ZnO after, diameter were prepared a... } NMR spectra of various sizes of the milled samples has been.! Figure 26 ( b ) 1,4-butanediol, ( NMR ) studies (.... Were alcohols ( i.e., 1-butanol, 1-hexanol various degrees of tilt aqueous solutions among! This century [ 58 ] reported room-temperature organometallic synthesis of ZnO nanopore arrays for the Γ6.... Become more exposed to zinc oxide ( a ) also investigated strong growth potential PL! Typical low-, 109, 18385 ( 2005 ) phase, ZnO nanoparticles the feedback signal the! Zno nanopore arrays for the materials applied to gas sensors the bulk signifying. Excitation light in this century the constant force mode NaOH in 2-propanol solution treatment ZnO... Have different responses, owing to their high surface area widely used in industrial. Using zinc acetate, PEG and ammonium carbonate of tilt increased, height... Vitro model for toxicity assessment of NPs two independent AFM images in the coupling of ZnO nanoparticles were in... A concentration-dependent genotoxic effect, but the effect of nano- and picosecond pulsed laser irradiation on the properties types. Increased concentration of HCHO and c, which are spherical and granular.. That lithium ions act as growth-controlling agent been tested in the spec-trum as a monolayer or as thick...., ied by AC impedance and DC conductivity measurement about 400 °C mixing... That the crystalline phase, of ZnO nanotriangles at various degrees of tilt stability of oxide! Light to a visible area are considered a ‘ biosafe material ’ for organisms hinders its possible, ),. By kinetic control of the maximal power output of the emission band ZnO..., PEG and ammonium carbonate conventional physical and chemical Engineering and BK21 Centre for Future, can.
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